The planting area has been reduced from half to spring that will increase 40% of domestic soybeans.

[China Agricultural Machinery Industry News] The Ministry of Agriculture recently issued the "Guiding Opinions on Promoting the Development of Soybean Production", proposing that by 2020, the soybean area will reach 140 million mu, an increase of 40 million mu. This is the guidance issued by the Ministry of Agriculture on soybean production in recent years. The reporter interviewed the relevant person in charge of the Ministry of Agriculture and relevant experts.
The planting area has been reduced from half to spring that will increase 40% of domestic soybeans.
The area planted with soybeans has been reduced by half in the past 50 years, and the current import volume accounts for 70% of the global trade volume.
In recent years, the planting area of ​​soybeans in China has been declining. At the end of the 1950s, the soybean planting area reached 190 million mu. In 2005, the soybean area was 140 million mu, but by 2015, the soybean area was only 97.56 million mu, a decrease of 46.3 million mu from 2005; soybean imports. The volume reached 81.69 million tons, accounting for about 70% of the global soybean trade volume. It is already the world's largest soybean importer.
“Soybean is an important source of plant protein consumption for urban and rural residents, and it is also an important crop for combination of land and land. Especially in the context of the current structural reform of agricultural supply side, soybean is an important alternative crop for adjusting and optimizing planting structure. Considering the edible characteristics, ecological functions and planting alternatives of soybeans, it is not easy to give up soybeans, and it is necessary to maintain stable development of soybean production. This is an important strategic option," said Zeng Yande, director of the Plantation Management Department of the Ministry of Agriculture.
In the context of the surge in soybean imports, is it to promote domestic soybean production in order to improve the self-sufficiency level of soybeans in China?
Zeng Yande said that according to estimates, the annual demand for soybeans in China will increase by about 4 million tons in the next 5-10 years. To solve the gap between soybean supply and demand, it is necessary to increase imports, but it is also necessary to increase domestic supply. "In the next period, China's soybean production development orientation is to meet the demand for domestic edible soybeans. The purpose is not to pursue the level of soybean self-sufficiency, nor to compete with imported soybeans, but to form a pattern of mismatched competition between domestic soybeans and imported soybeans. Supplementing the gap between edible vegetable oils and feed proteins; domestic soybeans are mainly used to make traditional soy products and condiments."
According to experts, domestic soybeans are still the mainstay of edible soybeans, and more than 80% of them are processed into soy products and seasonings. The domestic soybean production should be stable and meet the residents' demand for vegetable protein. At the same time, as a legume crop, soybean has a symbiotic nitrogen fixation effect. 1 mu of soybean can fix about 8 kg of nitrogen, which is equivalent to applying 18 kg of urea. After the soybean matures, the straw is less, the leaves are more, and the nutrient return rate is high, which can play the role of fertility. In the northeast region, the implementation of soybean and corn crops can achieve a combination of land and land to promote sustainable development.
Zeng Yande said that at present, there is a large backlog of corn in China and a serious shortage of soybeans. Promote the structural reform of the supply side of agriculture, focusing on adjusting and optimizing the planting structure, appropriately reducing the corn in the non-predominant areas, and replanting soybeans and other crops, which can not only dissolve the excess stock of corn, but also increase the supply of soybeans with large gaps in production and demand.
By 2020, the soybean area will increase by 40 million mu, reaching 140 million mu.
According to the "Opinions", by 2020, the soybean area will reach 140 million mu, an increase of 40 million mu. Under the current limited conditions of cultivated land resources, where is the main increase of 40 million mu?
"The existing cultivated land resources, the focus is on the protection of grain, grain, and cotton, oil, sugar, vegetables and other crops. The space for increasing the area of ​​soybeans is indeed limited. However, by adjusting and optimizing the planting structure, there is still potential for expanding soybeans. Zeng Yande said that from the perspective of eco-environmental protection, it is feasible to increase the area of ​​soybeans by using soybean as a crop for raising crops. Practice has shown that generally about 7 kg of nitrogen fertilizer per mu of soybeans is used, less than 1/5 of the amount of corn used. The implementation of grain and bean rotation, the reduction of corn with large fertilizer amount, and the replanting of soybeans can reduce the application of nitrogen fertilizer, reduce the pollution of soil and water, and play a role in protecting the ecological environment.
From the perspective of regional advantages, the northeast cold zone and the Huanghuaihai summer crop zone are the traditional advantage zones of soybeans. It is possible to adjust the structure to expand soybeans. The northeast is a traditional soybean planting area. It can reproduce the corn area and restore soybean production in the cold and cold areas of the northeast and the farming-pastoral area. It is a reappearance of the “high mountains and high soybeans” in the past. In addition, the Huanghuaihai wheat and corn two-crop area is tight, the summer maize with long growth period is reduced, and the soybean with short growth period can be remedied, which can alleviate the contradiction of the sputum and regulate the supply and demand of agricultural products. In the future, it is expected to expand the soybean area by 30 million mu in the northeast region and expand the soybean area by 10 million mu in the Huanghuaihai area.
Realization path: increase yield, technological innovation, policy guidance
At present, the average yield per mu of China's soybeans is about 120 kg, while the average US yield is 214 kg per mu, Brazil is 191 kg, and Argentina is 185 kg. Promote domestic soybean production, how to increase yield?
Zeng Yande analyzed that there are many reasons for the low yield of soybean in China, mainly because the scale of soybean planting in China is small, the utilization rate of standardized integrated technology is low, and the soybeans are planted in plots with poor site conditions, resulting in insufficient yield potential. .
At present, there are some certified varieties in China with a yield of more than 250 kg per mu, and the high-yield demonstration tablets are also over 200 kg per mu. Heilongjiang farmland has a large area of ​​170 kilograms per mu. "As long as the varieties and integration technologies are selected, it is possible to increase yields, and it is also a great potential." Zeng Yande said that the Ministry of Agriculture proposed to strive to achieve an average yield of 135 kg of soybeans by 2020, an increase of 15 kg over 2015. At the same time, starting from this year, in the northeast and Huanghuaihai advantageous production areas, a batch of green high-yield demonstration films with a scale of 10,000 mu and a yield of over 200 kg per mu will be created to explore the way for larger areas and high yields and to accumulate experience.
In order to better promote soybean production, the Ministry of Agriculture will adjust and optimize the regional layout and establish a soybean protection zone in accordance with the "Opinions". Guide funds, technology, and talents to focus on the advantageous areas. Vigorously promote scientific and technological innovation, select breakthrough varieties of high-yield and multi-resistance, and integrate and assemble high-yield technology models. At the same time, it strengthened the support of soybean policy and strengthened the regulation of the soybean market. We will improve the soybean target price policy, reasonably determine the target price, stabilize farmers' income expectations, and guide farmers to a variety of soybeans. Strengthen analysis and early warning, and establish a soybean supply and demand information release mechanism.

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