Han Changfu: Promoting structural reform of agricultural supply side

[China Agricultural Machinery Network Industry News] General Secretary Xi Jinping stressed at the rural reform symposium that changing agriculture is a short-legged "synchronization of four modernizations", and rural areas are the short-term situation of building a well-off society in an all-round way. The fundamental way is to accelerate rural development. This assertion is based on fully recognizing the basic and supporting role of agricultural and rural development in the overall economic and social development, accurately analyzing the urgent tasks facing agricultural and rural development and the urgent need to solve the problems, and put forward the current key tasks of the three rural development. Clear requirements.
Han Changfu: Promoting structural reform of agricultural supply side
Core points:
■ Studying and implementing the spirit of the important speech of the General Secretary and solidly promoting the structural reform of the supply side of agriculture, the key is to achieve “four improvements, four innovations”: First, improve the supply system and promote product innovation. The second is to improve the use of factors and promote technological innovation. The third is to improve resource allocation and promote institutional innovation. The fourth is to improve business methods and promote management innovation.
â–  The key to promoting the structural reform of the supply side of agriculture is people. It is necessary to fully mobilize the enthusiasm of various business entities, accelerate the construction of a modern agricultural management system based on the family management of farmers, cooperation and cooperation as a link, and social services, vigorously cultivate new business entities and new professional farmers, and play their role in promoting new The role of technology, opening up new markets, and creating new formats will be encouraged to become the main force in promoting structural reforms in the supply side of agriculture.
â–  Promote the structural reform of the supply side of agriculture, and the Party Central Committee and the State Council have made comprehensive arrangements. To implement these deployment arrangements, we must focus on the "six optimization, consolidation": First, focus on expanding effective and medium supply, and optimize product structure. Second, focus on extending the industrial chain and upgrading the value chain to optimize the industrial system. The third is to optimize the production system with the focus on promoting cost-effectiveness. The fourth is to improve the regional layout with the focus on improving the matching of resources and environment. Fifth, focus on the role of modest scale operation and optimize the management system. The sixth is to optimize the use of resources by focusing on the governance and restoration of the agro-ecological environment. Seventh, focusing on the construction of grain production functional zones and important agricultural product production protection zones, consolidate and enhance production capacity.
During the "two sessions" this year, General Secretary Xi Jinping stressed during the deliberation of the Hunan delegation that the main contradiction of agriculture in the new situation has changed from a lack of aggregate to a structural contradiction, and the structural reform of the supply side of agriculture is a current and future period. The main direction of China's agricultural policy reform and improvement. We must conscientiously implement the spirit of the important instructions of the General Secretary, adhere to the new development concept, and strive to promote structural reforms in the supply side of agriculture and accelerate the improvement of agricultural quality and competitiveness.
I. Fully understand the importance of promoting the structural reform of the supply side of agriculture
In recent years, China's agricultural and rural development has made remarkable achievements, but there are also many contradictions and problems, which are prominently manifested in the structure, mainly on the supply side. This requires us to unswervingly promote the structural reform of the supply side of agriculture.
Adapt to the urgent need to upgrade the consumption structure of agricultural products. With the acceleration of new urbanization, the demand for agricultural products of urban and rural residents is rapidly changing from “satisfaction” to “eat well, eat safely, eat nutritious and healthy”, and the demand for diversification and individualization has increased significantly. At present, China's agricultural production is not strong, but not excellent, and the problems are still outstanding. Only by vigorously promoting the structural reform of the agricultural supply side and improving the quality of agricultural products as soon as possible can we better adapt to the needs of upgrading the consumption structure.
The urgent need to improve agricultural competitiveness. In recent years, the cost of agricultural production in China has continued to rise rapidly, while the prices of international agricultural products have continued to fall. The spread of agricultural products at home and abroad has become larger and larger, and the scale of imports of corn, cotton, and sugar materials has continued to expand, and the problem of “foreign goods entering the market and domestic goods entering the warehouse” has been raised. Prominent, showing the phenomenon of “three increases in the number of births, imports, and stocks”. To solve this problem, we must use reforms to promote structural adjustment, promote agricultural transformation and upgrading, and enhance agricultural competitiveness.
The urgent need to improve agricultural efficiency and increase farmers' income. At present, farmers' family business income accounts for more than 40% of farmers' income, and farmers' income in the main producing areas mainly depends on agriculture. Due to the imbalance between the supply and demand structure, in some places, there have been phenomena such as “food prices falling, cabbage, and apples”, and farmers’ income has not increased. Only by vigorously promoting the structural reform of the supply side of agriculture, developing high-yield, ecological, and safe agriculture, and promoting the integration of rural primary, secondary, and tertiary industries, can we improve agricultural efficiency and promote farmers' continued income growth.
The urgent need to improve the agro-ecological environment. In these years, the two “tightening curses” of resources and environment have become more and more tight, and the problems of reduced cultivated land, declining quality, and increased agricultural non-point source pollution have become prominent, and the agricultural ecological environment has become a prominent shortcoming. We must seize the favorable opportunity for ample supply of agricultural products, vigorously promote structural reforms in the supply side of agriculture, transform agricultural production methods and resource utilization methods, repair ecology, improve the environment, fill shortcomings, and achieve green development.
Second, accurately grasp the general requirements for promoting the structural reform of the agricultural supply side
General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that to promote the structural reform of the supply side of agriculture, it is necessary to adjust and improve the agricultural production structure and product structure based on market demand, take the road of connotative modern agriculture development with the support of science and technology, and reform and improve agricultural support with the goal of improving the market mechanism. The protection policy is to develop a moderate scale of agriculture with family farms and farmer cooperatives as the starting point. Studying and implementing the spirit of the important speech of the General Secretary and solidly promoting the structural reform of the supply side of agriculture, the key is to achieve "four improvements, four innovations."
The first is to improve the supply system and promote product innovation. The current problem on the agricultural supply side is that production has not yet been able to adapt to changes in market demand, and “buy hardships” and “selling difficulties” coexist. To promote the structural reform of the supply side of agriculture, we must regard market demand as a "navigation light", adjust and optimize the structure and product structure of agricultural production, enhance the adaptability and flexibility of the supply structure of agricultural products, and innovate the supply of products to provide consumers with richer and more More marketable products.
The second is to improve the use of factors and promote technological innovation. Water, soil, fertilizer, medicine, technology, machinery, etc. are the main input factors for agricultural production. In these years, the water and soil elements have been stretched very tightly, and the use of fertilizers and medicines is excessive. The mechanical and technical support capacity is still far behind that of developed countries. We must vigorously implement the strategy of scientific and technological innovation, and promote the development of agriculture as soon as possible, driven by the input of material elements, driven by the advancement of science and technology, and the improvement of the total factor productivity of agriculture.
The third is to improve resource allocation and promote institutional innovation. At present, the problem of unreasonable allocation of agricultural resources in China is more prominent. The production area layout structure and resource endowment conditions are not matched, the resource recycling is not enough, and the effective treatment rate of crop straw, agricultural film recycling rate and livestock and poultry manure is low. The region will also allocate resources such as water and soil to the production of products that are not suitable for production and sales. We must adhere to market-oriented reforms, speed up the improvement of agricultural product prices and purchasing and storage, agricultural subsidies, financial insurance, circulation trade, and ecological environmental protection policies, and promote the effective allocation of agricultural resources.
The fourth is to improve business methods and promote management innovation. The key to promoting the structural reform of the supply side of agriculture lies in people. It is necessary to fully mobilize the enthusiasm of various business entities, accelerate the construction of a modern agricultural management system based on the family management of farmers, cooperation and cooperation as a link, and social services, vigorously cultivate new business entities and new professional farmers, and play their role in promoting new The role of technology, opening up new markets, and creating new formats will be encouraged to become the main force in promoting structural reforms in the supply side of agriculture.
Promoting the structural reform of the supply side of agriculture is a tough task with heavy tasks and difficulties. The following four relationships must be handled in the process of advancing. The first is the relationship between addition and subtraction. Increase the supply of green and organic agricultural products and special agricultural products, appropriately reduce the production of slow-moving varieties, reduce the supply of general and surplus agricultural products, and reduce inefficient and low-end supply. The second is the relationship between the government and the market. The main responsibility of the government is to create a good market environment and strengthen support and protection for agriculture. What to adjust and how to adjust should be decided by farmers and various new types of agricultural management entities according to market conditions. The third is the current and long-term relationship. It is necessary to focus on the current outstanding problems, but also to grasp the long-term goal of improving agricultural quality efficiency and competitiveness, and to make up for shortcomings such as deterioration of agricultural ecological environment, backward facilities and equipment, and insufficient technological innovation. The fourth is the relationship between strength and rhythm. The structural reform of the agricultural supply side should be balanced and balanced, vigorously and orderly, strengthen scientific guidance, maintain and pressure, and strive for stability.
Third, further clarify the key tasks of promoting structural reform of the supply side of agriculture
To promote the structural reform of the supply side of agriculture, the Party Central Committee and the State Council have made comprehensive arrangements. To implement these deployment arrangements, we must focus on the "six optimization and consolidation."
First, focus on expanding effective and medium supply, and optimize product structure. Adapt to market demand, adjust, adjust, and adjust the agricultural production structure, and increase the marketable agricultural production. In terms of varieties, the focus is on reducing corn production, increasing soybean yield, improving milk quality, and encouraging the production of miscellaneous grains and potatoes. In terms of quality, the focus is on improving quality and brand creation, vigorously promoting agricultural standardization production, establishing a sound quality and safety supervision and traceability system, and building and cultivating a number of agricultural product brands.
Second, focus on extending the industrial chain and upgrading the value chain to optimize the industrial system. We will give play to the multiplier effect of the integration of the first, second and third industries, develop and expand new industries and new business forms, and improve agricultural efficiency. Actively develop the agricultural product processing industry, especially vigorously support the development of intensive processing in the main producing areas, and accelerate the digestion of food, especially corn stocks. Vigorously develop e-commerce, leisure agriculture and rural tourism of agricultural products, promote the deep integration of agriculture and tourism, education, culture, health and other industries, so that farmers can obtain more value-added income.
The third is to optimize the production system with the focus on promoting cost-effectiveness. In the context of the difficulty in raising the price of agricultural products, the cost is to increase efficiency, that is, to increase income. It is necessary to strengthen agricultural science and technology innovation, promote agricultural mechanization and informationization, develop modern seed industry, and accelerate the popularization and application of agricultural science and technology. The current focus is on promoting cost-saving technology, integrating fertilizer-saving, medicine-saving, water-saving, planting, and fuel-saving technologies to improve the efficiency of agricultural input, reduce production costs, and improve operational efficiency.
The fourth is to improve the regional layout with the focus on improving the matching of resources and environment. Based on the local environmental capacity and ecological types, we will develop leading products and pillar industries with better matching of water and soil resources, and form a regional layout with reasonable division of labor and full play of comparative advantages. We will increase the ecological construction of ecologically fragile areas, focusing on the adjustment of corn planting in the “sickle bend” area, pig breeding in the southern water network area, lake reservoirs in the Yangtze River basin and offshore water aquaculture. However, it should be noted that at present, the major agricultural production areas in the country have basically taken shape, and the optimized regional layout should be fine-tuned, moderately adjusted, and fine-tuned. From the local reality, avoid big tossing and “dizzing cakes”.
Fifth, focus on the role of modest scale operation and optimize the management system. Support the development of various types of moderate scale operations such as land transfer, land custody, and land shareholding, foster agricultural socialized service organizations, develop productive service industries, and focus on introducing land custody methods to allow scattered farmers to catch up with the “fast train” of scale operation. Encourage farmers to voluntarily solve the problem of contracted land fragmentation through exchange or circulation, and explore the farmer's land contractual management rights voluntary voluntary withdrawal policy.
The sixth is to optimize the use of resources by focusing on the governance and restoration of the agro-ecological environment. Through the structural reform of the supply side of agriculture, it is necessary to fundamentally solve the constraints of the two “tightening curses” of the agricultural resources and environment. Efforts should be made to lay a solid foundation for the prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollution, to do a good job in the comprehensive treatment of heavy metal pollution areas in Hunan, to expand the scope of pilot projects for the treatment of black soil degraded areas in Northeast China, and to steadily promote the pilot of the farmland rotation system. Vigorously develop ecological recycling agriculture, establish a pilot zone for sustainable development of agriculture, and explore the path and institutional mechanism for the coordination of production ecology.
Seventh, focusing on the construction of grain production functional zones and important agricultural product production protection zones, consolidate and enhance production capacity. Adhere to the construction of a good grain production functional zone as a fundamental measure to ensure the safety of rations, and build an important agricultural product production protection zone as an important means to stabilize the self-sufficiency level of cotton and oil. Vigorously implement the strategy of “grabbing grain on the land and storing grain in technology”, speeding up the delineation of basic farmland, and carrying out high-standard farmland construction on a large scale, focusing on building a stable production base of important agricultural products such as grain and cotton, oilseeds and sugar materials, ensuring that If the market needs it, it can be produced and supplied.
Fourth, improve the safeguard measures to promote the structural reform of the agricultural supply side
Promote the structural reform of the supply side of agriculture. The current focus is to play the role of the policy "baton" and "navigation device", improve the policy of strengthening agriculture, benefiting farmers and enriching farmers, and solving the problem of mismatching and distortion of agricultural resources, forming a strong and effective support. Policy system.
Improve the agricultural subsidy policy. Accelerate the establishment of a subsidy policy system that is compatible with the transfer mode adjustment structure, and play a role in promoting the structural reform of the supply side of agriculture. Further strengthen the "three supplements and one" efforts to support the protection of cultivated land and the moderate scale of grain operations. Actively strive for new agricultural production cost subsidies, new varieties of breeding subsidies, standardized production subsidies, resource protection and environmental governance subsidies, etc., and explore the establishment of food production functional zones, important agricultural production protection zones, interest compensation mechanisms.
Improve the mechanism for the formation of agricultural product prices. The price of agricultural products is the lever and signal that guides production, regulates supply and demand directly, and works. It is necessary to increase the flexibility of policy adjustment according to the relationship between supply and demand in the market, and implement policies in a gradual manner. Continue to implement the low purchase price policy for major grain varieties and improve the pilot price policy for soybeans and cotton. In accordance with the principle of market pricing and price separation, corn should implement “market-based acquisition subsidies” to allow prices to return to the market while protecting farmers' interests.
Improve financial insurance policies. Further promote financial resources to the agricultural and rural areas, and solve problems such as difficult loans, expensive loans, and low insurance. Accelerate the establishment and improvement of the agricultural credit guarantee system covering the whole country, form and operate the National Agricultural Credit Guarantee Alliance, and give priority to supporting the development of new agricultural business entities with moderate scale operations. We will improve the agricultural insurance policy and gradually realize the full coverage of grain insurance functional areas, important agricultural product production protection zones, and grain-producing counties, and gradually realize the full coverage of new business entities and moderate scale operations.
Improve trade control policies. It is necessary to make overall use of the two resources in the international and domestic markets, improve the agricultural product trade control mechanism that is compatible with domestic production and demand, control the import of structural surplus agricultural products, and promote the superiority of agricultural products. Strengthen the protection of domestic industrial security and improve the compensation system for important agricultural product trade damages as soon as possible. Accelerate the promotion of “going out” of agriculture and establish an agricultural “going out” support policy system.

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