In the driver-vehicle-environment system, the optimal matching of the visual link of the human-machine interface must be based on the driver's eyes as the positioning reference. Because of the different individuals, the position of the eyes is also different.
The use of statistical perspectives and methods to study the distribution of the driver's point of view, found that the vehicle driver's point of view of the distribution of the elliptical shape, it is called the driver's eye ellipse. The concept of elliptical eyes of car drivers is researched and proposed by SAE Body Engineering Committee Human Body Model Division. SAE eye ellipses are divided into 90th, 95th, 99th percentile, etc. The law of human eye's elliptical distribution. The establishment of the ellipse of the driver's eye provides a scientific benchmark for studying the visual field performance of the vehicle. Section 2.1 of this article is based on the eye ellipse research on automotive instrumentation.
General traditional car instrument clusters need to display the content of the engine speed, speed, fuel level, water temperature and various instructions, the general requirements of automotive instruments are: simple structure, reliable work, display data is accurate, clear, when the voltage of the power supply appears When fluctuations and changes in ambient temperature occur, the changes in the data display should be as small as possible. In addition, the instrument's seismic and impact resistance performance is also better.
2 automotive combination instrument design example
A light bus combination meter developed and designed by a company. The instrument is a stepper motor electronic CAN bus instrument adopting SAEJ1939 communication protocol. It is simple, anti-strong electromagnetic interference, fashionable and generous, complete functions and so on.
2.1 Ergonomics check
2.1.1 Night Windshield Reflection Check The reflection of night wind window reflection is shown in Fig. 2. Engineering requirements: Light can't pass through the reflection of the windshield and shoot into the ellipse of 99% of the driver's eyes.
Checking instructions: At night, the light inside and outside the cab is dim. If the light from the instrument panel is reflected by the windshield to the person's eyes, it will cause the meter's panel to be imaged on the windscreen so that the driver cannot see it. Know the road conditions outside the car and cause traffic hazards.
Checking method: draw a line from the lower edge of the combination meter panel to the upper edge of the instrument panel, and the ray has an intersection with the inner surface of the windscreen (if it is not specified that the night windshield reflection check is qualified). The normal line is the symmetry axis for the above ray symmetry line. If the symmetry line is not above the 99% ellipse 20mm offset line, the night windshield reflection check is qualified, otherwise it is unqualified and the related structure needs to be readjusted. , recheck.
2.1.2 Daylight windshield reflection check The day windshield reflection check is shown in Figure 3. 125 Phase 2 Liu Fei, Sun Yu: Based on ergonomics automotive instrument cluster design research project requirements: light can not pass the wind The reflection of the window glass hits 99% of the driverâ€™s eye ellipse.
Checking instructions: Since the surface of the combiner's surface cover is mirror surface, the incident light from the windshield shines on the combiner surface cover, and part of the light will be reflected back into the cab. If this part of the light enters the driver's eyes, it will It will cause dazzling to the driver and affect driving safety.
2.1.3 Daytime internal surface reflectance check Daytime internal surface reflectance check is shown in Fig. 4. Engineering requirements: Light can't be reflected by the specular surface of the combimeter's surface cover and sound mask, etc., and reflected into 99% of the operator's eye ellipse.
2.1.4 Visual inspection of combination meter Visual inspection of combination meter See engineering requirements:
1) The distance between the instrument panel and the human eye is between 750~790mm;
2) The angle between the line of sight of the midplane and the horizontal line of sight is between 17 (~ 20 (between;
3) The driver's eyes cannot be blocked by the steering wheel.
In addition to the above-mentioned checkout items, when the instrument is designed, it is also necessary to consider the operability between the combination meter and the instrument panel and the convenience of instrument maintenance. For example, whether there is sufficient space for tool operation between the instrument cluster and the instrument panel; whether the instrument panel is to be dismantled or the steering wheel is to be removed when the instrument is being repaired.
2.2 Signal Display Design The signal display design mainly coordinates the analog display, digital display and screen display. According to the usage habits and modeling requirements, the engine speed, the vehicle speed, the fuel level and the coolant temperature are simulated display, and other The signal is displayed on the screen.
2.2.1 Analog display design The analog display device is a device that uses scales and pointers to indicate parameters or states. The display method has the advantages of high reliability, good stability, easy to display signal change tendency, and easy to judge the difference between the signal value and the rated value. The analog display design mainly includes reasonable selection and design of dials, pointers, text symbols and color matching so that they can coordinate with each other.
The size of the scale should be appropriate. Too small is not conducive to reading, and the accuracy and speed of the degree are low. If the scale is too large, the size of the dial increases, which is not only uneconomical, but also reduces the reading effect. When the human eye directly reads, the minimum size of the scale should not be less than 0.6~1mm, generally it should be selected between 1~2.5mm.
In order to make the measured value represented by each tick mark visible at a glance and facilitate quick reading, each tick mark preferably represents a measured unit value or 2, 5 unit values, or 1) 10 x,
2) 10 x, 5) 10 x (x is a positive integer) times the unit. According to the provisions of GB15082 126 Liaodong University Journal (Natural Science Edition) Volume 17-2008 Vehicle Speedometer #, the speedometer unit should be expressed in km/h. Between 20km/h and the upper limit, the division value shall be marked as any one of 1, 2, 5, 10km/h.
2.2.2 screen display design
The on-screen display device is a device that displays various types of information on a limited area display screen. The indicator in the screen display mainly follows the GB4094-1999 automotive controls, indicator and signage of the signal device, according to the actual situation.
2.2.3 Other Information Display
With the rapid development of automotive electronics technology, more and more electronic devices are being used in vehicles, and more and more information needs to be displayed on the instrument clusters. However, the space for automotive instrument clusters is limited. Some infrequently used information that does not play a key role in the safety of the vehicle is displayed on one or more LCD screens. Switching is performed through the toggle button. This saves space and satisfies the driverâ€™s needs for the vehicle. Information query requirements. In this example, the exercise mileage, urea level, tire pressure, and fault information of each control system were collected on a single LCD screen without breaking code, and the two adjustment buttons on the combination meter were used for adjustment and switching operations.
Based on the ergonomics of automotive instrument cluster design research is to protect the functions of the instrument under the premise of improving the shape design to meet the general principles of ergonomics, so that drivers, instruments and the environment to coordinate and improve the vehicle's active safety performance .
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